The nigerian civil war

Northern leaders, fearful that independence would mean political and economic domination by the more Westernized elites in the South, preferred the perpetuation of British rule. Goetz, issues in the Biafra conflict.

Colonel Shuwa led the Nigerian army through the north of Biafra. By the end ofmany observers thought the war had ended because the RUF ceased most of its military operations.

Less than two months after Biafra declared its independence, diplomatic efforts to resolve the crisis fell apart.

The country was divided in such a way that the North had a slightly higher population than the other two regions combined. They made up the first classes of African civil servants, doctors, lawyers, and other technicians and professionals.

In contrast to the two other groups, the Igbo in the southeast lived mostly in autonomous, democratically organised communities, although there were eze or monarchs in many of the ancient cities, such as the The nigerian civil war of Nri.

These tradition-derived differences were perpetuated and perhaps enhanced by the British system of colonial rule in Nigeria. This Sultan was regarded as the source of all political power and religious authority.

This changed in when Shell-BP found large petroleum deposits in the Eastern region. For the country was divided in such a way that the North had slightly more population than the other two regions combined. Although Benin City was retaken by the Nigerians on September 20, the Biafrans succeeded in their primary objective by tying down as many Nigerian Federal troops as they could.

Igbo and Yoruba leaders, anxious to obtain an independent country at all cost accepted the Northern demands. Violence spread throughout the country and some began to flee the North and West, some to Dahomey.

Further anger over the murder of prominent Hausa politicians led to the massacre of scattered Igbo populations in northern Hausa-Fulani regions. Inside the World of Doctors Without Borders. The basis of modern Nigeria formed inwhen Britain amalgamated the Northern and Southern protectorates.

On wings of war: Political decisions were to be submitted to. Ethnic division[ edit ] The civil war can be connected to the British colonial amalgamation in of Northern and Southern Nigeria.

In the North, the British found it convenient to rule indirectly through the Emirs, thus perpetuating rather than changing the indigenous authoritarian political system.

The Genesis The immediate cause of the civil war may be identified as the coup and the counter coup of which altered the political equation and destroyed the fragile trust existing among the major ethnic groups. All these factors led to a growing pressure in the Igbo east for secession.

Breakaway The military governor of the Igbo-dominated southeast, Colonel Odumegwu Ojukwu, citing the northern massacres and electoral fraud, proclaimed with the southern parliament the secession of the south-eastern region from Nigeria as the Republic of Biafra, an independent nation on May 30, When it was, he regarded this as a failure of Gowon and the Military Government to honor their agreements, and that he was acting in accord with the agreement.

This highly centralized and authoritarian political system elevated to positions of leadership persons willing to be subservient and loyal to superiors, the same virtues required by Islam for eternal salvation. The discovery of large quantities of oil in the south-east of the country had led to the prospect of the south-east becoming self-sufficient and increasingly prosperous.

Muhammad Murtala to form another division Division 2 to drive the Biafrans out of mid-west and attack Biafra as well. Reconstruction, helped by oil money, was swift; however, the old ethnic and religious tensions remained a constant feature of Nigerian politics.

Civil war in Nigeria

However, their efforts to take power were thwarted by Johnson Aguiyi-Ironsian Igbo and loyalist head of the Nigerian Armywho suppressed coup operations in the South. At this point, the other parts of Nigeria considered the war to be a confrontation between the Eastern region and the Northern region.

The north, up until aroundhad had low-level demands to secede from Nigeria and retain its wealth for northerners. During the first year of the war, the RUF took control of the diamond-rich territory in eastern and southern Sierra Leone.

The division was made up of mostly northern officers. Kouchner and the other French doctors signed this agreement. Competition for its associated wealth led to the struggle for control amongst the regions. This system worked so well, Colonial Governor Frederick Lugard successfully lobbied to extend it to the Southern Protectorate through amalgamation.

Christian missionaries were excluded from the North, and the area thus remained virtually closed to European cultural imperialism. Through it, an offensive was launched into Biafra south by General Gowon.

Nigerian Civil War

The coup, also referred to as "The Coup of the Five Majors", has been described in some quarters as Nigeria's only revolutionary coup. The Hausa-Fulani commoners, having contact with the political system only through their village head who was designated by the Emir or one of his subordinates, did not view political leaders as amenable to influence.Hostilities in the Nigerian civil war commenced on the 6 th day of June ; it is one of the sourest conflicts ever to (dis)grace the record books of African history.

Spanning a gruesome thirty months of cascading bloodletting, massive starvation, and disease outbreaks, memories of those days still haunt those who survived. Civil war in Nigeria Five weeks after its secession from Nigeria, the breakaway Republic of Biafra is attacked by Nigerian government forces.

InNigeria gained independence from Britain. The Nigerian civil war is commonly referred to as the Biafran War. It was fought between 6 th of July, to 15 th of January, Purpose of the war was to.

The Nigerian Civil War, –was an ethnic and political conflict caused by the attempted secession of the South-eastern provinces of Nigeria as the self-proclaimed republic of Biafra. The Second Liberian Civil War began in when a rebel group backed by the government of neighbouring Guinea, the Liberians United for Reconciliation and Democracy (LURD), emerged in northern earlya second rebel group, the Movement for Democracy in Liberia, emerged in the south, and by June–July.

The Nigerian Civil War, also known as the Nigerian-Biafran War, was a three-year, bloody conflict with a death toll numbering more than one million people. Having commenced seven years after Nigeria gained independence from Britain, the war began with the secession of the southeastern region of.

The nigerian civil war
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